To diagnose certain problems, we may need to look directly into the abdomen and at the reproductive organs. This can be done with laparoscopy. A laparoscope is a small telescope that is inserted through a small incision in the abdominal wall. It brings light into the abdomen so the doctor can see inside and repair any problems that are discovered. Laparoscopy is usually performed in an operating room on an outpatient basis.
Hysteroscopy is a surgical procedure that allows the physician to inspect the inside of the uterus by inserting a hysteroscope (a small telescope about the size of a pen) through the vagina and cervix and into the uterus. This procedure takes place in an operating room on an outpatient basis. Liquid is placed into the uterus through the hysteroscope to separate the walls and allow inspection. Fibroids, polyps, scarring, and uterine shape abnormalities may thus be seen and corrected.
Approximately 1 million women in the United States undergo an elective tubal sterilization procedure each year. Some women decide later in life to expand their family and have a procedure called tubal reversal, which attempts to restore the function of the fallopian tubes, allow natural conception to occur.
When a tubal reversal is performed, at least one “open” tube is created 70 to 80 percent of the time, with overall pregnancy rates slightly lower, in range of 50 to 75 percent. As with any type of tubal surgery, the reversal of a tubal ligation increases a woman’s risk of a tubal pregnancy. The surgery is less successful if the tubes were cut with a cautery or if other pelvic diseases such as scarring or endometriosis are present. Tubal reversal is performed by laparotomy (major surgery) using magnification techniques. It should only be performed by surgeons with expertise in this procedure.
Factors Determining Candidacy
- Woman’s age
- Semen analysis
- Tubal Ligation method