Structural Causes of Infertility in Women
Structural problems in a woman’s reproductive tract typically affect the fallopian tubes or uterus.
Problems with the fallopian tube can interfere with the egg being picked up by the fallopian tube to enter the genital tract and make contact with sperm. Structural issues can also prevent an embryo from traveling to the uterus for implantation and pregnancy.
Conditions like sexually transmitted diseases, infections, and previous surgeries can damage, scar and block a woman’s fallopian tubes. Scar tissue can also involve the ovaries and other pelvic organs. Endometriosis can also cause structural problems and damage to the fallopian tubes that lead to infertility. It can affect many aspects of reproductive function. This is a condition where the tissue usually found only inside the uterus grows in other places in the woman’s body.
Regarding the uterus, some women are born with structural problems (Müllerian anomalies), such as an abnormally shaped uterus that impacts their fertility. Others may develop fibroids, which are typically benign tumors of the muscular wall of the uterus that can interfere with implantation or blood flow to a growing pregnancy. Polyps, typically benign tumors of the inner lining of the uterus, can also develop and cause difficulties with conception.